Minimal Pairs (redux)

Jan 28, 2014

ESL Teachers:  What are your favorite minimal pairs for helping students overcome issues with pronunciation?

For Arabic-speaking students, I like to use “My dog likes to bark in the park.”

For Japanese speakers, I like “I think I see a sink.”

Please comment belong and share your favorites.  Feel free to share any stories that go along with them!

Minimal Pairs

Oct 3, 2013

In Linguistics, minimal pairs are pairs of words (or phrases) in a language which differ by only one element.  They can be as useful for learning/practicing the phonology of a language as they are for confusing learners of that language.

As I’ve taught English to international students, I’ve learned that students from different language groups will tend to have different problems with certain sounds.  I’ve used minimal pairs to great effect in combating this.

Arabic speakers, for example, often have trouble with the sound |p| as it doesn’t exist in Arabic.  Thus, they will often pronounce path and bath the same way.  Japanese speakers will often have trouble with l/r or th.  Thank and sank will often be pronounced similarly.  (To work on this, I try to get them to stick out their tongues.  They love this.)

Here are a small handful of the countless minimal pairs in English:

  • sit / seat / set
  • grid / grade
  • too / toe
  • pen / pin
  • path / bath
  • thin / sin
  • thin / thing

There are, of course, many (many) more.  The next time you learn a new language, try finding minimal pairs in that language.  Not only will it help you with phonology, but also vocabulary acquisition.


Aug 18, 2013

borborygmus (pl. borborygmi) – /ˌbɔrbəˈrɪɡməs/ – the sound of a gurgling stomach.  From the Ancient Greek onomatopoeia βορβορυγμός.


Endo and Exo

Aug 14, 2013

As you might already know, I loves me some endonyms and exonyms.  Go ahead… refresh yourself.  I’ll wait.

Many countries call themselves something different from what we (in the English-speaking world, from my perspective) call them.  The same can apply to cities, natural landmarks, etc.  Well, someone built a cool new tool to give you a bird’s-eye glance at endonyms and exonyms all over the globe.

Check out: EndonymMap!



Jul 1, 2013

phone-callAn interesting topic came up in one of my classes last week.  Many languages have a special word they use for “hello” only when answering the phone.  Some examples are wei (Chinese), moshi moshi (Japanese), yoboseyo (Korean), and alo (many languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, Persian, Turkish, and Vietnamese).  In these languages, there is a different “hello” that is generally used when greeting someone face-to-face.

In English, however, we say “hello” for both situations.  But did you know that this was almost not the case?  Alexander Graham Bell, a Scotsman who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone, wanted us to say “ahoy-hoy.”  Ultimately, Thomas Edison’s preferred “hello” won out.

But apparently not if you’re as old as Montgomery Burns


by | Categories: English | No Comments

In my own ESL teaching adventures, I find that likening pronunciation to a physical activity (e.g. sports) can be useful.  For example, I will ask if any students play basketball or soccer.  I then ask students if they think they can use the same muscles and skills to win a swimming match.  Of course, they say “no.”  I then explain that they can’t necessarily use their L1 “muscles” to speak their target language (i.e. English), and that they need to develop what I call “English Muscles” in order to play this “sport” well.  The analogy seems to work pretty well.

Today’s online edition of The Telegraph has an article specifically addressing learning to pronounce foreign languages.  What do you think of it?


Jan 20, 2013

Here are a few ways to express “snore” (v.) in various languages:

  • Russian: храпеть [khrapet']
  • French: ronfler
  • German: schnarchen
  • Italian: russare
  • Spanish: roncar
  • Korean: 코를골다 [koleulgolda]
  • Chinese: 鼾声 [hānshēng]
  • Japanese: いびきをかく [ibiki wo kaku]

Drop Them Ts!

Dec 31, 2012

Any interesting study on T-Drop from BYU:


by | Categories: English | No Comments

‘Nuff Said

Sep 18, 2012

by | Categories: Grad School | No Comments

Language Universality?

Aug 26, 2012

An interesting new study…