borborygmus (pl. borborygmi) – /ˌbɔrbə
borborygmus (pl. borborygmi) – /ˌbɔrbə
As you might already know, I loves me some endonyms and exonyms. Go ahead… refresh yourself. I’ll wait.
Many countries call themselves something different from what we (in the English-speaking world, from my perspective) call them. The same can apply to cities, natural landmarks, etc. Well, someone built a cool new tool to give you a bird’s-eye glance at endonyms and exonyms all over the globe.
Check out: EndonymMap!
An interesting topic came up in one of my classes last week. Many languages have a special word they use for “hello” only when answering the phone. Some examples are wei (Chinese), moshi moshi (Japanese), yoboseyo (Korean), and alo (many languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, Persian, Turkish, and Vietnamese). In these languages, there is a different “hello” that is generally used when greeting someone face-to-face.
In English, however, we say “hello” for both situations. But did you know that this was almost not the case? Alexander Graham Bell, a Scotsman who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone, wanted us to say “ahoy-hoy.” Ultimately, Thomas Edison’s preferred “hello” won out.
But apparently not if you’re as old as Montgomery Burns…
In my own ESL teaching adventures, I find that likening pronunciation to a physical activity (e.g. sports) can be useful. For example, I will ask if any students play basketball or soccer. I then ask students if they think they can use the same muscles and skills to win a swimming match. Of course, they say “no.” I then explain that they can’t necessarily use their L1 “muscles” to speak their target language (i.e. English), and that they need to develop what I call “English Muscles” in order to play this “sport” well. The analogy seems to work pretty well.
Today’s online edition of The Telegraph has an article specifically addressing learning to pronounce foreign languages. What do you think of it?
Here are a few ways to express “snore” (v.) in various languages:
Any interesting study on T-Drop from BYU:
Just a quick update:
I’m scheduled to defend my thesis–”Explaining Fukushima to Children: Cross-Cultural Study of Bodily Functions as Metaphor in Japanese”–next week. I’ll let y’all know how it goes.
Just a quick bit of lexicon this morning:
Exonym [Greek - ἔξω, éxō, "out" + ὄνομα, ónoma, "name"]
An exonym is a name referring to an ethnic group (ethnonym), language (glossonym), place (toponym), or person that is used by people outside said group. The United Nations defines exonym as the name used in a specific language for a geographical feature situated outside the area where that language is spoken, and differing in its form from the name used in an official or well-established language of that area where the geographical feature is located.
Endonym [Greek - ἔνδον, éndon, "within" + ὄνομα, ónoma, "name"]
An endonym is a name referring to an ethnic group (ethnonym), language (glossonym), place (toponym), or person that is used by people inside of said group. The United Nations defines endonym as the name of a geographical feature in an official or well-established language occurring in that area where the feature is located.
Here are some examples of exonyms with their endonymic counterparts in English and their native languages:
China/Zhōngguó (中国), Dutch/Nederlands [ˈneːdərlɑnts], Greece/Hellas (Ελλάς), Germany/Deutschland, Gypsy/Romani, Moscow/Moskva (Москва), Japan/Nihon/Nippon (日本).
This phenomenon is not, unique to English:
Korea is referred to differently, depending on which Korea is doing the talking. North Korea refers to “Korea” as Chosŏn (조선), but South Korea refers to it as Hanguk (한국) or Namhan (남한, 南韓 – “South Han”). The official Korean name for the Republic of Korea is “Dae Han Minguk” (대한민국 – “The Republic of Korea”). (There are other variations, but you get the picture.)
America is called beikoku (米国) in Japanese and the English language is called eigo (英語). In China, America is called měiguó (美国) and the English language is yīngyǔ (英语).
Many exonyms were born as a result of the namer not understanding the namee’s language. In Russian and other languages, for example, the word for “Germans” is Немцы (Nemtsy), which is derived from the word немой which means “mute.” The accepted folk etymology is that the German language appeared so unintelligible to the Slavs that they dubbed them “mutes.”
In addition to Russian, this word is also used in the Arabic, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Slovak, Slovenian, Serbian, Polish, Romanian, Turkish, and Ukranian languages. (Interestingly, a theory regarding the word “Slavic” suggests that it comes from slovo, meaning “word.” This, again, differentiates between those with words and those without.)
Sioux is likely a shortened form of Nadouessioux, a proto-Algonquian word meaning “foreign-speaking.” Berber comes from a Greek representation of gibberish (“bar-bar-bar”). The list goes on and on.
Do you know any exonym/endonym combinations? Please leave a comment and share them with us.
A contranym is a word that has seemingly contradictory meanings. Because of their two-faced nature, they are also sometimes referred to as “Janus words” after the two-faced Roman god. In a nutshell1, we’re talking about a word that is its own antonym. Contranyms do not necessarily need to be spelled the same way; those that sound alike, but are spelled differently, are called homophonic contranyms.
Some examples in English are:
Another word that, through misuse, has become somewhat of a contranym is literal. Some have (confusingly) come use the word to mean “figuratively” (e.g. “I literally died laughing”). However, the original meaning also remains (e.g. “I am literally typing this on a MacBook Pro”). Confusion ensues. To mitigate this, I’ll sometimes write “literal-literal” and “figurative-literal” in blog posts.
While working on a translation today, I happened upon a contranym that appears to cross over linguistic lines: yama.
Яма (yama): pit (Russian)
山 (yama): mountain (Japanese)
(Of course, because they are spelled differently, they are technically homophonic contranyms, but you already knew that.)
Do you know of any bilingual contranyms? Please share them in the comments section and I’ll post them in a future article!
2Depending upon your regional dialect, you may pronounce these words differently.
My hometown paper, the Daily Times Herald in Carroll, Iowa, did me the honor of asking me to write an Op-Ed piece on why I think we should learn other languages. It’s a bit long, but they decided to run the full version with very few, minor cuts.
I hope you enjoy it! As always, I welcome any feedback you might have.